PMO在项目不同阶段的职责

PMO在项目不同阶段的职责

网友转载 2019/9/30 10:42:36

项目管理办公室(PMO)正在引起全球范围内的关注,越来越多的组织开始考虑或者已经设立了PMO。成立项目管理部的成立,从项目绩效跟踪,到项目规范的建立,再到项目的选择、启动、实施、收尾等全生命周期管理,发挥越来越重要的职能。PMO在企业中担当着建立规范项目管理标准、总结最佳实践、解决资源冲突、培养项目经理团队、项目评审以及建设组织级项目管理体系等责任,PMO追求的是组织所有项目的成功和组织整体战略成功。

在激烈的市场竞争中,企业经常是处在一个复杂多变的客观环境中求生存和发展。提升企业自身的管理能力应当采用多项目管理,成立项目管理部的成立,从项目绩效跟踪,到项目规范的建立,再到项目的选择、启动、实施、收尾等全生命周期管理,发挥越来越重要的职能,从而可以有效增强企业的核心竞争力。

   成立PMO的目的是追求组织中所有项目的成功。项目成功意味着组织能够选择正确的项目,并且能够正确地执行项目,进而可以通过项目的成功实施来实现企业的战略目标。美国《信息周刊》指出:“项目失败主要原因不是在细节地方出错,而是缺少过程、方法和管理项目的标准“。通过成立项目管理办公室进行多项目管理,可以促进企业积累项目成功的最佳实践,评审项目计划,建立项目度量体系和绩效报告,及时挽救或中止危险的项目,培养项目经理管理技能等方面,为项目成功提供保障。

  多项目管理就是要建立一套可靠的管理系统,按照优先管理方式,有效协调分配现有的资源,确保各个项目按计划完成。

  进行公司级的项目管理,首先要建立一套项目管理的标准规范。根据企业项目的特点,我公司建立了一套分为销售环节、研发环节、项目实施服务环节的项目里程碑管理规范。如项目实施服务环节,建立了6个阶段18个里程碑。 18个里程碑分别为:组织建立、项目启动、现场勘察与工程设计、业务调研与蓝图设计、计划分解、设备到货、土建施工、二次开发、外场安装、中心安装、联网调试、系统培训、系统上线、试运行结束、项目验收、决算审计、服务交接、质保服务。 在每个里程碑中,对阶段的工作目标、工作内容,以及用到的模板、工作指南都有详细的定义。每个项目里程碑中规定的活动,都参照了历史项目成功与失败的经验教训总结,为项目经理提供成功保障。

  在项目的几个主要阶段,PMO主要有以下职责:

  PMO对项目过程监控,实现项目绩效的透明化,而且在项目不同的阶段,PMO都要承担相应的职责。 在项目选择阶段,对内部项目要评审项目建议书及评审项目可行性研究报告;对于客户项目要评审销售机会、评审项目投标文件、合同的风险条款,对项目的选择进行评审,从源头上杜绝不良项目的引入。 在项目启动阶段,要确定项目优先级,对项目计划完整性及合理性审查,特别是审查多项目共用的关键资源在项目中分配,项目范围、WBS计划的合理性、项目风险应对计划等。

  在项目实施阶段,审查单个项目绩效报告,编制多项目的组合报告,对危险项目组织整改,通过对项目里程碑监控,对项目进度、执行的规范性、成本费用支出与计划进行比较,找出其偏离度,责成项目组提出纠偏措施并执行。同时要对发生的进度、范围、成本变更进行批准。 在项目的收尾阶段,组织项目总结经验教训、审查项目完工绩效,对项目经理的绩效评价,对项目收益评价,对项目资料文档存档入库。

多项目管理的主要问题是项目之间的资源平衡,资源相对不足是所有项目都要面对的问题,特别是优秀项目经理更是关键资源。将优秀的项目经理提升为项目顾问,不再只做一个项目,而是巡回对多个项目进行指导。

 新项目经理到入职后,首先要学习项目实施方法论及实施管理规范,了解行业相关知识,通过项目数据库了解历史项目的实施过程及经验总结。在参与实施两个以上项目并通过内部认证后,可以独立担当项目经理,由项目顾问分阶段到项目现场进行项目辅导,通过一对一的传帮带加快项目经理的成长过程。


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